Linux7.6二进制安装Mysql8.0.27

作者:IT邦德
中国DBA联盟(ACDU)成员,目前从事DBA及程序编程
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从业8年DBA工作,在数据库领域有丰富的经验
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文章目录

前言 一、环境准备 1.1 操作系统版本 1.2 磁盘空间 1.3 关闭防火墙 1.4 关闭 selinux 1.5 HOST解析 1.6 Mysql下载 二、 yum安装及配置 2.1 挂载本地光盘镜像 2.2 配置yum源 2.3 安装依赖包 三、卸载MariaDB 四、安装 MySQL 4.1 用户及目录创建 4.2 用户及组 4.3 上传软件包并解压 五.环境变量配置 六.创建参数文件 七.数据库初始化 八.启动Mysql 九.登陆Mysql 十.修改密码 十一.远程登陆设置

前言

最近一个朋友开的公司需要安装部署Mysql,故帮忙在Liunx服务器安装部署了下,为了感谢我,朋友还请我吃了一顿海底捞,特总结以下部署文档分享给大家

一、环境准备

1.1 操作系统版本

[root@rhel76 ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 7.6 (Maipo)

1.2 磁盘空间

[root@rhel76 ~]# df -TH
Filesystem            Type      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/rhel-root xfs        32G  4.6G   27G  15% /
devtmpfs              devtmpfs  2.1G     0  2.1G   0% /dev
tmpfs                 tmpfs     2.1G     0  2.1G   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                 tmpfs     2.1G   14M  2.1G   1% /run
tmpfs                 tmpfs     2.1G     0  2.1G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda1             xfs       996M  172M  825M  18% /boot
/dev/mapper/rhel-u01  xfs        30G   34M   30G   1% /u01
tmpfs                 tmpfs     413M  4.1k  413M   1% /run/user/42
tmpfs                 tmpfs     413M   46k  413M   1% /run/user/0

1.3 关闭防火墙

[root@rhel76 ~]# systemctl status firewalld
● firewalld.service - firewalld - dynamic firewall daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/firewalld.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
   Active: active (running) since Tue 2021-11-23 23:46:04 UTC; 9min ago
     Docs: man:firewalld(1)
Main PID: 9621 (firewalld)
    Tasks: 2
   CGroup: /system.slice/firewalld.service
           └─9621 /usr/bin/python -Es /usr/sbin/firewalld --nofork --nopid


Nov 23 23:46:03 rhel76 systemd[1]: Starting firewalld - dynamic firewall daemon...
Nov 23 23:46:04 rhel76 systemd[1]: Started firewalld - dynamic firewall daemon.

[root@rhel76 ~]# systemctl stop firewalld
[root@rhel76 ~]# systemctl disable firewalld
Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/firewalld.service.
Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/dbus-org.fedoraproject.FirewallD1.service.

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1.4 关闭 selinux

[root@rhel76 ~]# getenforce
Enforcing

[root@rhel76 ~]# cp /etc/selinux/config /etc/selinux/config_`date +"%Y%m%d_%H%M%S"`
[root@rhel76 ~]# sed -i 's/SELINUX\=enforcing/SELINUX\=disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config

以上修改完后重启
[root@rhel76 ~]# reboot

[root@rhel76 ~]# getenforce
Disabled
[root@rhel76 ~]# sestatus
SELinux status:  disabled

1.5 HOST解析

[root@rhel76 ~]# cat /etc/hosts

127.0.0.1   localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4
::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6
192.168.6.81 rhel76

[root@rhel76 ~]# hostname
rhel76

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1.6 Mysql下载

https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/
MD5: 0bdd171cb8464ba32f65f7bf58bc9533

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二、 yum安装及配置

2.1 挂载本地光盘镜像

[root@rhel76 ~]# mkdir -p /mnt/dvd/

[root@rhel76 ~]# df -TH
Filesystem            Type      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/rhel-root xfs        32G  4.7G   27G  15% /
devtmpfs              devtmpfs  2.1G     0  2.1G   0% /dev
tmpfs                 tmpfs     2.1G     0  2.1G   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                 tmpfs     2.1G   14M  2.1G   1% /run
tmpfs                 tmpfs     2.1G     0  2.1G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda1             xfs       996M  172M  825M  18% /boot
/dev/mapper/rhel-u01  xfs        30G   34M   30G   1% /u01
tmpfs                 tmpfs     413M   21k  413M   1% /run/user/0
tmpfs                 tmpfs     413M   13k  413M   1% /run/user/42
/dev/sr0              iso9660   4.5G  4.5G     0 100% /run/media/root/RHEL-7.6 Server.x86_64

[root@rhel76 ~]# mount /dev/sr0 /mnt/dvd
mount: /dev/sr0 is write-protected, mounting read-only
You have mail in /var/spool/mail/root

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2.2 配置yum源

[root@rhel76 ~]# cd /etc/yum.repos.d/
[root@rhel76 yum.repos.d]# cat >> /etc/yum.repos.d/redhat.repo << "EOF"
> [rhel7]
> name=jeames repo
> baseurl=file:///mnt/dvd/
> gpgcheck=0
> EOF

2.3 安装依赖包

[root@rhel76 ~]# yum -y groupinstall "DeveLopment tools"
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, product-id, search-disabled-repos, subscription-manager
This system is not registered with an entitlement server. You can use subscription-manager to register.
There is no installed groups file.
Maybe run: yum groups mark convert (see man yum)
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
Warning: Group development does not have any packages to install.
Maybe run: yum groups mark install (see man yum)
No packages in any requested group available to install or update

[root@rhel76 ~]# yum -y install ncurses ncurses-devel openssl-devel bison gcc gcc-c++ make

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三、卸载MariaDB

[root@rhel76 ~]# rpm -qa |grep mariadb
mariadb-libs-5.5.60-1.el7_5.x86_64

[root@rhel76 ~]# rpm -e --nodeps mariadb-libs-5.5.60-1.el7_5.x86_64

四、安装 MySQL

4.1 用户及目录创建

注:可以部署多个实例,通过端口区分root 用户操作:mkdir -p /mysql/data/mysql3306mkdir -p /mysql/app/mkdir -p /mysql/conf/mkdir -p /mysql/data/mysql3306/pid/mkdir -p /mysql/data/mysql3306/socket/mkdir -p /mysql/data/mysql3306/log/mkdir -p /mysql/data/mysql3306/binlog/mkdir -p /mysql/data/mysql3306/errlogmkdir -p /mysql/data/mysql3306/relaylog/mkdir -p /mysql/data/mysql3306/slowlog/mkdir -p /mysql/data/mysql3306/tmp/

4.2 用户及组

[root@rhel76 ~]# groupadd mysql
[root@rhel76 ~]# useradd -g mysql mysql
[root@rhel76 ~]# chown -R mysql:mysql /mysql
[root@rhel76 ~]# passwd mysql
Changing password for user mysql.
New password:
BAD PASSWORD: The password is shorter than 8 characters
Retype new password:
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.

[root@rhel76 ~]# cat /etc/group | grep mysql
mysql:x:1001:
[root@rhel76 ~]# cat /etc/passwd | grep mysql
mysql:x:1001:1001::/home/mysql:/bin/bash

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4.3 上传软件包并解压

[root@rhel76 ~]# cp mysql-8.0.27-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.xz /mysql/app
[root@rhel76 ~]# chown -R mysql:mysql /mysql

mysql用户操作
[root@rhel76 ~]# su - mysql
md5 值验证,保证下载到的软件包无破损无木马
[mysql@rhel76 ~]$ cd /mysql/app
[mysql@rhel76 app]$ ll
total 1168588
-rw-r--r-- 1 mysql mysql 1196633756 Nov 24 00:49 mysql-8.0.27-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.xz
[mysql@rhel76 app]$ md5sum mysql-8.0.27-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.xz
0bdd171cb8464ba32f65f7bf58bc9533  mysql-8.0.27-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.xz

解压软件包并重命名
[mysql@rhel76 app]$ tar xvf mysql-8.0.27-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.xz
[mysql@rhel76 app]$ mv mysql-8.0.27-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64 mysql8.0.27

[mysql@rhel76 app]$ ll
total 1168588
drwxrwxr-x 9 mysql mysql        129 Nov 24 00:54 mysql8.0.27
-rw-r--r-- 1 mysql mysql 1196633756 Nov 24 00:49 mysql-8.0.27-linux-glibc2.12-x86_64.tar.xz

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五.环境变量配置

cat >> /home/mysql/.bash_profile << "EOF"
MYSQL_HOME=/mysql/app/mysql8.0.27
PATH=$PATH:$HOME/.local/bin:$HOME/bin:$MYSQL_HOME/bin
EOF


source ~/.bash_profile
which mysql

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六.创建参数文件

由于是二进制文件安装,数据库参数文件需要自己配置

cat >> /mysql/conf/my3306.cnf << "EOF"
[mysqld]
server_id = 80273306
default-storage-engine= InnoDB
basedir=/mysql/app/mysql8.0.27
datadir=/mysql/data/mysql3306/data/
socket=/mysql/data/mysql3306/socket/mysql.sock
log-error=/mysql/data/mysql3306/log/mysqld.log
pid-file=/mysql/data/mysql3306/pid/mysqld.pid
port=3306
default-time_zone='+8:00'
default_authentication_plugin=mysql_native_password # 加此参数可远程登陆
transaction_isolation=READ-COMMITTED
max_connections=1500
back_log=500
wait_timeout=1800
max_user_connections=800
innodb_buffer_pool_size=1024M
innodb_log_file_size=512M
innodb_log_buffer_size=40M
slow_query_log=ON
long_query_time=5
# log settings #
slow_query_log = ON
slow_query_log_file = /mysql/data/mysql3306/slowlog/slow3306.log
log_error = /mysql/data/mysql3306/errlog/err3306.log
log_error_verbosity = 3
log_bin = /mysql/data/mysql3306/binlog/mysql_bin
log_bin_index = /mysql/data/mysql3306/binlog/mysql_binlog.index
general_log_file = /data/mysql/mysql3306/generallog/general.log
log_queries_not_using_indexes = 1
log_slow_admin_statements = 1
expire_logs_days = 90
binlog_expire_logs_seconds = 2592000      #30d
long_query_time = 2
min_examined_row_limit = 100
log_throttle_queries_not_using_indexes = 1000
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit=1

EOF

七.数据库初始化

mysql用户操作:
mysqld --defaults-file=/mysql/conf/my3306.cnf --initialize --user=mysql --basedir=/mysql/app/mysql8.0.27 --datadir=/mysql/data/mysql3306/data/
注意:以上同一行执行

八.启动Mysql

[mysql@rhel76 ~]$ mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/mysql/conf/my3306.cnf --user=mysql &
[1] 21406
[mysql@rhel76 ~]$ 2021-11-24T06:14:23.240372Z mysqld_safe Logging to '/mysql/data/mysql3306/errlog/err3306.log'.
2021-11-24T06:14:23.296992Z mysqld_safe Starting mysqld daemon with databases from /mysql/data/mysql3306/data

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九.登陆Mysql

第一次登录 MySQL 时,需要到错误日志下找初始化密码,我这里的密码为:-(Qy5Aj9t,=a
使用 socket 加密码登录进去后,无法查询任何东西,提示先要修改 root 密码。

[mysql@rhel76 ~]$ cat /mysql/data/mysql3306/errlog/err3306.log | grep password

2021-11-24T06:12:14.610657Z 0 [Note] [MY-010309] [Server] Auto generated RSA key files through --sha256_password_auto_generate_rsa_keys are placed in data directory.
2021-11-24T06:12:14.610686Z 0 [Note] [MY-010308] [Server] Skipping generation of RSA key pair through --caching_sha2_password_auto_generate_rsa_keys as key files are present in data directory.
2021-11-24T06:12:14.615367Z 6 [Note] [MY-010454] [Server] A temporary password is generated for root@localhost: -(Qy5Aj9t,=a
2021-11-24T06:14:26.153958Z 0 [Note] [MY-010308] [Server] Skipping generation of RSA key pair through --sha256_password_auto_generate_rsa_keys as key files are present in data directory.
2021-11-24T06:14:26.153979Z 0 [Note] [MY-010308] [Server] Skipping generation of RSA key pair through --caching_sha2_password_auto_generate_rsa_keys as key files are present in data directory.

[mysql@rhel76 ~]$ mysql -uroot -p
Enter password:
ERROR 2002 (HY000): Can't connect to local MySQL server through socket '/tmp/mysql.sock' (2)

##此处通过sock登陆
[mysql@rhel76 ~]$ mysql -uroot -p  -P 3306 -S /mysql/data/mysql3306/socket/mysql.sock
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 8
Server version: 8.0.27


Copyright (c) 2000, 2021, Oracle and/or its affiliates.


Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.


Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.


mysql> status
ERROR 1820 (HY000): You must reset your password using ALTER USER statement before executing this statement.

十.修改密码

mysql> alter user root@'localhost' identified by 'root';Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)mysql> status--------------mysql  Ver 8.0.27 for Linux on x86_64 (MySQL Community Server - GPL)Connection id:          8Current database:Current user:           root@localhostSSL:                    Not in useCurrent pager:          stdoutUsing outfile:          ''Using delimiter:        ;Server version:         8.0.27Protocol version:       10Connection:             Localhost via UNIX socketServer characterset:    utf8mb4Db     characterset:    utf8mb4Client characterset:    utf8mb4Conn.  characterset:    utf8mb4UNIX socket:            /mysql/data/mysql3306/socket/mysql.sockBinary data as:         HexadecimalUptime:                 8 min 0 secThreads: 2  Questions: 7  Slow queries: 0  Opens: 398  Flush tables: 3  Open tables: 36  Queries per second avg: 0.014--------------

十一.远程登陆设置

使用如下语句创建 root 用户是无法通过 navicat 等客户端登录的,
由于从 MySQL8 开始,身份验证插件发生改变,
默认的 “caching_sha2_password” 不允许远程登录,
故需将此插件修改为 “mysql_native_password” 便可登录。

mysql> create user root@'%' identified with mysql_native_password by 'root';
mysql> grant all on *.* to root@'%' with grant option;
mysql> flush privileges;

mysql> select user,host,plugin from mysql.user;  
+------------------+-----------+-----------------------+
| user             | host      | plugin                |
+------------------+-----------+-----------------------+
| root             | %         | mysql_native_password |
| mysql.infoschema | localhost | caching_sha2_password |
| mysql.session    | localhost | caching_sha2_password |
| mysql.sys        | localhost | caching_sha2_password |
| root             | localhost | mysql_native_password |
+------------------+-----------+-----------------------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)

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